Our marching team.. we won 2nd place woo... sooooo happppyyyy!!!
Friday, 20 April 2012
Even my house doesnt win the 1st place but i'm so impressed that we manage to win almost of the event carried on at the last day.. especially the cheer leading we won the 1st place, the marching we won 2nd place and house decoration we won 1st place.. and lastly our maskot also win the first place.. hehe i love my yellow house! everyone had gave their very best during the sports day.. good job!! ^^
Wednesday, 18 April 2012
Subject Verb Agreement
Subject verb agreement can be one of the more challenging aspects of writing. While short clauses provide for an easily identifiable subject, longer clauses with extensive phrases can make proper subject verb agreement more of a challenge.
The first and most important rule in subject verb agreement is that the verb must agree with the intended number of the subject.
To accomplish that task, follow two occasionally not so simple tasks.
- Identify the real subject
- Determine whether subject is singular or plural
The first step is often made difficult by phrases and/or sentence structure that work to obscure the true subject.
Prepositional phrases are one of the main culprits in the misidentification of the true subject of the clause. Remember, objects cannot be subjects, so the object of a preposition cannot be a subject of a clause.
- Among the constitutional rights we cherish is freedom.
- AMONG is a preposition; therefore, RIGHTS is the object of the preposition. FREEDOM is the subject of the sentence.
- The group of protesters is blocking the entrance to the building.
- OF is a preposition; therefore, PROTESTERS is the object of the preposition. GROUP is the subject of the sentence and it is singular.
- The annual rituals of the group confuse the neighbors.
- OF is a preposition; therefore, GROUP is the object of the preposition. RITUALS is the subject of the sentence and it is plural.
Parenthetical phrases can also work to obscure the true subject. Phrases such as "as well as," "such as," "along with," "rather than," "accompanied by" and "including" introduce items that are NOT considered when determining whether a verb is singular or plural.
- The quiz, as well as all workbook exercises, was collected.
- QUIZ is the subject. The parenthetical expression does not affect the verb.
- His jacket, not his shirt or his socks, always seems to match his slacks.
- JACKET is the subject. It is singular. The parenthetical expression does not affect the verb.
- Her birthday celebration, together with the upcoming holiday, makes for a very full calendar.
- CELEBRATION is the subject. The parenthetical expression does not affect the verb.
- The president and vice president, accompanied by the board of directors, plan to vote against changing the company bylaws.
- PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT are the subject. The verb is plural.
Expletives (There, Here) are false subjects. Disregard them completely when determining the subject that the verb must agree with.
- There are fewer students in this class.
- The true subject in this sentence is STUDENTS.
- Officer, here is the person I was telling you about.
- The true subject in this clause is PERSON.
Predicate nominatives can lead to some confusion when determining the true subject. Remember to find the subject and verb combination first and then begin to determine whether that subject is singular or plural.
- The war-torn country's only relief was the food and medical supplies dropped from the sky.
- The true subject in this sentence is RELIEF.
- The explanation provided by the agency was farming practices, population growth and international aid.
- The true subject in this sentence is EXPLANATION.
The gerund phrase includes the gerund and the object of the gerund or any modifiers related to the gerund.
[In the following examples, the gerund is bold and the gerund phrase is underlined.]
- Flying above the lake at this time of night seems a little dangerous.
- FLYING is the subject of the sentence. A subject is a noun. A form of the verb ending in ING and used as a noun is a gerund. FLYING is a gerund.
- Bill decided that scrambling over the pile of debris was not safe.
- SCRAMBLING is the subject of the dependent clause. A subject is a noun. A form of the verb ending in ING and used as a noun is a gerund. SCRAMBLING is a gerund.
- Ethan avoided doing his homework because the Ducks were playing the Cougars.
- DOING is the direct object of the verb AVOIDED. An object is a noun. A form of the verb ending in ING and used as a noun is a gerund. DOING is a gerund. HOMEWORK is the object of the gerund.
- The student gathered signatures for increasing the hours of the library.
- INCREASING is the object of the preposition FOR. An object is a noun. A form of the verb ending in ING and used as a noun is a gerund. INCREASING is a gerund. HOURS is the object of the gerund.
- Philip Morris continues its fight to prevent government from regulating tobacco; nevertheless, the government is placing restrictions on marketing cigarettes to youth.
- Both REGULATING and MARKETING are objects of prepositions (FROM and ON).
- The young man opposes marketing smoking cigarettes as if it were glamorous.
- MARKETING is the direct object of the verb OPPOSES. SMOKING is a gerund and the object of the gerund MARKETING. CIGARETTES is the object of the gerund SMOKING.
- Andrew continues his crusade to prevent the university from limiting free speech.
- LIMITING is the object of the preposition FROM. SPEECH is the object of the GERUND.
Traditionally a clause is defined as a group of related words that has both a subject and a verb.
In attempting to identify clauses, they are often contrasted with phrases, which do not have a subject and verb.
In the interest of accuracy, we should acknowledge that linguists have a much more complicated understanding of clauses and phrases, but for the purposes of basic grammar, we'll stick with the simple definition.
Therefore, in the sentence, "She has not met the person who will move into her old office," "She has not met the person" and "who will move into her old office" are both clauses. On the other hand, "into her old office" is a phrase.
The challenge in learning to identify clauses lies in the number of grammar terms needed for the discussion. So, if you are feeling a little shaky on subjects, verbs,prepositions, conjunctions and/or relative pronouns, this would be the time for review.
Okay, here we go.
There are two types of clauses:
An independent clause, which functions alone, is not dependent on another clause for context or function. You can read an extensive discussion of independent clauses here, but the following examples will give you the basic idea.
An independent clause has at least one subject and one verb.
- The ice melted.
Ah, wouldn't grammar be easy if every sentence was three words long? But, even sentences with a lot of words may have only one subject and one verb.
Sometimes the subject and verb are right next to each other:
- Hurricane Ike barreled west across the already beleaguered islands of the Caribbean on Sunday, raising the death toll and destruction across the waterlogged region.
Sometimes the subject and verb are separated by several words:
- The failure to obtain convictions on the plane-bombing charge was a blow to counterterrorism officials.
Some independent clauses have more than one subject and verb.
- Obama and Biden met with the committee and discussed the economy.
A sentence can have more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by a conjunction or a semi-colon.
- Caroline Kennedy is seeking the Senate seat, and the governor will speak with her.
A dependent clause, sometimes called a subordinate clause, cannot function independently. In other words, it is dependent on another clause for context or function. In case it is still not clear: A dependent clause CANNOT exist without an independent clause.
Again, you can read an extensive discussion of dependent clauses here, but the following examples will give you the basic idea.
In the following examples, the independent clauses is underlined, the subject of the dependent clause isbold and the verb is bold and underlined.
A clause that begins with a subordinating conjunction is dependent.
- The rest of the industry was not ready when Vista finally arrived.
- "When" is a subordinating conjunction connecting the dependent clause to the independent clause.
A subordinating conjunction can begin a sentence.
- Although the band has been a significant commercial success, radical politics have always been baked into their music.
- "Although" is a subordinating conjunction connecting the dependent clause to the independent clause.
Dependent clauses that connect to the independent clause with relative pronouns rather than subordinating conjunctions are further classified as restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. But, just because nothing in grammar is simple, these clauses are sometimes called essential or nonessential, respectively.
The good thing is, the name tells the story of the clause's value to the sentence: Nonrestrictive/nonessential clauses are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Because it can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning, it is set off by commas. Think of the commas as little handles you can grab to toss the clause to the side. Restrictive/essential clauses are, you guessed it, essential to the meaning of the sentence. (No commas, please.)
- Several people who have counseled the governor on the pending vacancy said that Kennedy has emerged as a clear front-runner.
- "Who" is a relative pronoun and the subject of the restrictive dependent clause. "Kennedy" is the subject of a second dependent clause, which is connected to the independent clause by the subordinating conjunction "that."
- Muntader Zaidi, who remained in custody Monday, provided a rare moment of unity in a region often at odds with itself.
- "Who" is a relative pronoun and the subject of the nonrestrictive dependent clause.
A final note:
A dependent clause typically functions as a single part of speech in a sentence (e.g., noun, adjective, adverb).
- Ritchie, whose career has never scaled the same heights since, was mobbed outside the theater by a gaggle of paparazzi.
- The nonrestrictive dependent clause modifies RITCHIE; therefore, it is an adjective clause.
- Unless the Pentagon comes up with a better strategy, the United States and its allies may well lose the war.
- The dependent clause explains a condition or reason in relation to the independent clause; therefore, it is an adverb clause.
Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.
- She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm.
- Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."
- Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best.
Correlative conjunctions sometimes create problems in parallel form. Click HERE for help with those problems. Here is a brief list of common correlative conjunctions.
|both . . . and|
not only . . . but also
not . . . but
either . . . or
|neither . . . nor|
whether . . . or
as . . . as
The conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result are used to create complex relationships between ideas. Refer to the section on Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas for an extensive list of conjunctive adverbs categorized according to their various uses and for some advice on their application within sentences (including punctuation issues).
|Guide to Grammar|